Sugarcane

Egypt


Factors Effecting the Production of Sugarcane:

         1-  Agricultural Factors

         2-  Policy Factor

         3 - Economical Factor

 

To Increase Sugarcane Yield Per Unit Area      

       a- Role of Grower

       Improvement in Production Technology Land preparation

  1. Soil Insect Control at Planting Time
  2. Planting time:
  3. Seed rate and planting pattern:
  4. Method of Planting
  5. Depth of Planting with Relation to Water Furrow
  6. Hot water seed treatment
  7. Amount of Soil Cover over Seed Cane
    Varieties:
  8. Recommended varieties of sugarcane
  9. Fertilizer application

  10. Soil Testing

  11. Weed control

  12. Irrigation

  13. Integrated Pest Management For Sugarcane

  14. Control of diseases

  15. Ratoon crop management

  16. Harvesting

      b- Role of The Governorate

      c- Role of Research Centers

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Factors Effecting the Production of Sugarcane:

               Reasons for low sugar cane production.

1-  Agricultural Factors.

(i) Unscientific/unsystematic agriculture practices

a)      Improper selection of land

b)      Improper preparation of land

c)      Conventional planting methods,

d)      Late planting,

e)      Moisture stress at critical stages of crop growth,

f)        Poor management of ratoon crop

g)      Early and late harvesting,

   (ii)  Environmental resistance,
   (iii) Low soil fertility,
   (iv)
 defective varieties,
   (v)
  Pests, disease and weeds,
   (vi)
 Credit shortage,
   (vii) Rapid/Unplanned increase in sugarcane acreage in unsuitable areas of  Egypt.

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2-  Policy Factor: 

a)      Lack of Research In Sugar Cane Technology.

b)      Lack of Agricultural Education.

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3 - Economical Factor:

a)      Variation in Prices.

b)      Unavailability Of resources for the growers.

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To Increase  Sugarcane Yield  Per Unit  Area:       

The goal of increasing sugar yield per unit area is

  • difficult,
  • time consuming a
  • and needs dedicated efforts of

·         government,

·         millers

·         and the growers.

Some of the measures to bring down the cost of cultivation and improve cane productivity include:

  • the selection of the right varieties,
  • maintenance of soil health,
  • quality planting material,
  • nutrient management,
  • the adoption of copping systems approach,
  • weed management,
  • water management,
  • ratoon management a
  • and sound post harvest handling, according to the scientists.

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a- Role of Grower:

  Improvement in Production Technology

    1- Land preparation:

  • Proper land preparation plays
  • Well-rotten farmyard manure (FYM) should be applied a month prior to land preparation.
  • Press mud from the sugar industry is another excellent source of organic matter and nutrients.  
  • Green manuring may also serve the purpose.

    2 - Soil Insect Control at Planting Time

         Heavy infested soil must be applied herbicide before or after planting depending on the kin of herbs and herbicides.

  3- Planting time:

  • The selection of an appropriate planting method and schedule greatly influences crop growth, maturity, and yield..
  • There are two planting seasons:
  • These planting times are strictly observed because late planting can reduce the yield by as much as 30 percent.
  • September planted crop usually produces 25 to 35 % higher yield

·         Fall ( Mid-September and Mid-October)  

·         and spring (February and March ).

4- Seed rate and planting pattern:

  • Appropriate seed rate and spacing are often ignored by farmers, with the result that the optimum plant population, which is the key factor in sugarcane production, is not achieved in the field.
  • The seed rate and spacing between rows differ with variety.
  • Thick-cane cultivars like 'BL-4', 'Triton', and 'PR-1000' require a higher seed rate and more space between the rows than thin and medium-cane varieties.
  • Eight to nine tonnes of stripped cane per hectare (3-4 tonnes of stripped cane per acre ) for thick varieties, and six to seven tones for medium to thin varieties is sufficient to produce a desired plant population of about 0.15 million canes/ha ( 63.000 canes/acre).
  • A spacing of 1 m between the rows of thick varieties, and 0.60-0.75 m ( 252.000 – 315.000 canes/acre) for thin to medium varieties allows sufficient space for operations like intercultural and earthing up.

5- Method of Planting:

It showed further yield increases as the furrow width was increased from 15 to 18 to 24 inches.

Based on this research and the problems encountered by growers in handling furrow widths of more than 18 inches, it is suggested that growers use a 15- to 18-inch furrow for planting.

6-  Depth of Planting with Relation to Water Furrow

·         To avoid water damage to seed cane, it should be placed at least 3 to 4 inches above the final water furrow or middle.

·         In soils with poor internal drainage, the seed cane should be placed even higher above the final water furrow.

·         Growers should be aware of the need to keep the seed cane above the area where water levels will hurt cane stands.

·         Low row height at planting time could be a problem, especially with billet seed cane. 

7- Hot water seed treatment

Seed may be treated with hot water at 520 C for 30 minutes and with fungicide.

8- Amount of Soil Cover over Seed Cane

·         Research on depth of soil cover over seed cane indicates that soil cover in excess of 4 inches can cause yield losses even if the excess is removed in the spring following planting.

·         Heat-treated cane should be covered with 2 inches of packed soil.

·         After the cane is up to a good stand and before freezing weather occurs, add an additional 2 inches of soil to protect from freeze damage.

·         Do not cover heat-treated cane with more than 2 inches of packed soil at planting.
 

9- Varieties:

·          Use healthy seed of improved varieties of sugarcane

·          The economic life span of sugarcane variety varies from 8 to 10 years and after that replacement the variety is necessary.

10- Recommended varieties of sugarcane.

a- Local varieties:

             Recommended varieties in Egypt are: GT 54-9 (Commercial variety in Egypt), G 58-166, G 86-20, G 87-20, G 87-37, G 87-55, G 87-58 and G 87.73

b-Foreign Varieties

          These varieties are : Ph 8013, F 155 and F 160:

11- Fertilizer application

The very important note getting the soil tested before the use of any particular fertilizer is not practiced in our country..

12-  Soil Testing

  • The best way to determine lime, phosphorus and potassium requirements is with a reliable soil test.
  • The soil sample must be collected properly for the test to be valid.
  • Large fields should be broken up into smaller units for sampling purposes, and the smaller fields intensively sampled, because nutrient and pH levels often vary greatly within fields.
  • Soil samples may be collected anytime before fertilizing or liming, but soon after harvest is recommended, if possible.

13- Weed control

Good land preparation is a key factor in controlling weeds. For proper weed control, Gesapax combi (80 WP) may be applied @ 1.4 kg per acre in medium textured soils and @ 1.8 kg per acre in heavy soils in 100 to 120 litres of water. The herbicide should be used with the advice of the technical experts.

14- Irrigation

It is very important to take care of the irrigation requirements of sugarcane, particularly in summer months. 

15- Integrated Pest Management For Sugarcane:

Insect pests play an important role in reducing the sugarcane yield..

16- Control of diseases

  • For controlling sugarcane diseases, use healthy seed which is disease-free and preferably plant disease-resistant varieties.
  • Treat the seed with fungicide/s before planting.
  • The diseased plants from the field should be removed and either buried or burnt. Seed may be treated with hot water at 520 C for 30 minutes.
  • Disease-free, good-quality seed increases yield by 10-15%.

17- Ratoon crop management

  • If the ratoon crop is properly managed, it could give higher returns than the plant crop because of savings in certain field operations and inputs.
  • It is important to remember that ratoon crop requires 30 to 40 per cent higher fertilizers than the plant crop.

18- Harvesting

  • Stop irrigation 25 to 30 days before the harvest of crop and do not leave the harvested crop for long in the field.
  • In case it has to be kept for a prolonged period, it should be covered with trash.
  • Different varieties planted may be harvested according to their maturity.
  • Harvesting is done when the crop has fully matured and ripened.
  • The harvested cane should be immediately hauled to the mill otherwise weight and sucrose losses may occur.
  • For this purpose, transport should be arranged in advance.

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b- - Role of The Governorate

 

  • Increasing the price of sugarcane
  • Simplified the protocol between farmers and Sugar companies
  • All suitable kinds of Pesticides for sugarcane must be available
  • All facilities for planting sugarcane (i.e., fertilizers, seeds (cuttings), machines,..etc)

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c-- Role of Research Centers

 

There are some important information must be available

  • Suitable varieties for each location
  • The best recommendation for sugarcane plant ( i.e., planting, pest control, irrigation, …etc.)
  • Suitable pamphlet for sugarcane
  • Selection new varieties of sugarcane
  • Identification of new pests and their controls
  • Selection the new methods of sugarcane planting
  • Suitable intercropping for sugarcane

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